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Lettre du LabEx EHNE n°8 - été 2018

Lettre du LabEx EHNE

Chères et chers collègues, veuillez trouver ci-après les dernières actualités du LabEx Écrire une Histoire Nouvelle de l'Europe. Bien cordialement, Clémence Blazy pour le LabEx EHNE

Manifestations à venir 
Dernières notices 

Marion BRÉTÉCHÉ

Tandis qu’au Moyen Âge, le censor était celui qui relisait et corrigeait le travail des moines copistes, à l’époque moderne, le terme renvoie à l’exercice par un pouvoir (politique, administratif, religieux, etc.) du droit de contrôler, et le cas échéant d’entraver ou d’interdire, la communication d’écrits au public. L’initiative revient aux autorités...

« Beaucoup de ceux qui s’étaient adonnés aux sciences occultes amenèrent leurs livres et les brûlèrent devant tout le monde ».  L’épisode de saint Paul faisant brûler les livres de magie (Actes des apôtres, xix, 19) sert de modèle et de frontispice à l’Index des livres interdits, publié sur ordre du pape Benoît XIV en 1758. L’Index romain est la liste officielle des livres censurés par l’Église catholique.

Emmanuelle BERTHIAUD

Maternity represents a central element in the definition of the female body. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the medicalization of maternity, along with demographic and health considerations, led to greater control over the reproductive bodies of women. However, a major change took place during the second half of the twentieth century, with the gradual...

Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907), Mère allongée avec un enfant [Mother and Child Reclining], oil on canvas, 82.5 x 124.7 cm, 1906-1907, Musée Paula Modersohn-Becker, Bremen (Ludwig Roselius collection).

Benoît DAUVERGNE

Initially thought of as the matrix of civilization, and long dreaded or celebrated as a place to lose and better find oneself—whether one was a knight, or a child driven by danger or an urge—the increasingly rare European forest, surrounded by fields and cities, has been likened to the Garden of Eden, protected as a park and projected overseas, slowly becoming a...

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, The Parc des lions at Port Marly, 1872, oil on canvas, 81 x 65 cm, Museo Nacional Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid

Isabelle GERNET

Sexual harassment at work is difficult to define, for it is sometimes seen as a characteristic of emotional abuse or violence in general and sometimes as a specific entity unto itself. The workplace emerges as a specific locale for the exercise of violence and power, as demonstrated by the problem of sexual harassment. In the face of this phenomenon, different...

Le contremaître Penaud : « Tas de brutes ! Vous voulez me faire faire la culbute, sous prétexte que j’ai culbuté vos femmes !… ». Jules Grandjouan, L’Assiette au beurre, no 214, 6 mai 1905, lors de la grève de Limoges.Foreman Penaud: “Bunch of brutes! You want to bring me down, on the pretext that I screwed your wives!...”. Jules Grandjouan, L’Assiette au beurre  214, May 6, 1905, during the Limoges strike.

Anne SALLES

While the notion that any pregnancy must be stoically accepted dominated in Europe until the eighteenth century, birth control spread during the nineteenth century and gradually became a common practice despite opposition from the Church and political authorities. It was actually seen as a means of upward mobility and from the 1960s increasingly as an instrument of...

Thermometer for determining the fertile and infertile days of the menstrual cycle, circa 1950.

Marie BARRAL-BARON

The confrontation between Erasmus and Luther was a highly important duel for Europe during the first half of the sixteenth century, for they offered competing visions of humans, history, and faith. While they were both born in a Northern Europe steeped in devotio moderna, and both received the same spiritual and biblical training, their paths soon...

Luther and his Collaborators, by Lucas Cranach the Younger. Detail from the epitaph of Michael Meyenburg, the Burgomaster of Meyenburg, oil painting, copy of the original from 1558, which was once conserved in the Saint Blaise’s church in Nordhausen.

Elisabeth DU RÉAU

The process of identifying elites has been the subject of theoretical analyses developed in political sociology. Historians have also contributed to the study of the “decision-making groups” at work during the beginnings of European construction.

European elites from a number of states in North-western Europe mobilized around the creation of the first...

Michel CATALA

The participation of the people in the construction of Europe has raised questions since the 1970s, when member states sought to revitalize the process of political unification. The election of the European Parliament by universal suffrage was a first step.  The Europe of citizens, which was initiated in 1975 and revitalized in 1985, was meant to bring the peoples...

British Passport

Tristan LECOQ

The Atlantic Alliance was the central part of security in Europe from 1949 to 1989, with France playing its part, then going his own way. Between the seemingly improbable defence of Europe by Europeans and the defence of Europe by NATO, which seems to have won out, France has tried since the end of the Cold War to maintain a form of national independence, strategic...

A map showing European membership of the EU and NATO. Blue, EU members only. Orange, NATO members only. Purple, members of both.

Stanislas JEANNESSON

Par-delà leurs effets immédiats, qui restent très limités, les deux conférences de La Haye de 1899 et 1907 jettent les bases d’un nouveau système international fondé sur le droit. Tournant résolument le dos au Concert européen, elles s’ouvrent aux pays d’Amérique et d’Asie et entendent notamment favoriser la pratique de l’arbitrage pour régler les différends et...

Une séance plénière lors de la seconde conférence de La Haye, 1907, salle des Chevaliers (Ridderzaal).

Fabien SIMON

Née en 1417, au sein d’un échange épistolaire en latin entre Francesco Barbaro et Le Pogge, l’expression ne s’impose réellement en Europe qu’à partir du début du xvie siècle : en 1520, Boniface Amerbach, fils du célèbre imprimeur de Bâle, fait alors d’Érasme le « monarque de toute la République des lettres ». La ...

Simon Fokke, Frontispice pour la revue Republyk der geleerden (« La République des lettrés »), 1745. Rijksmuseum RP-P-201b-1050. Minerve, déesse de la sagesse et du savoir, semble veiller sur la bibliothèque où travaillent et échangent les lettrés, tandis que Mercure, dieu associé à la presse et à l’information, les instruit.

Stéphane LEMBRÉ

The naturalization of feminine and masculine qualities, which was used for the gendered division of occupations, intensified during the nineteenth century. The occupations of men were often based on physical strength, or the exercise of high public office and professions involving knowledge and power, whereas the occupations of women were more connected to dexterity...

Essen, miners in the gallery (1961), photograph by Egon Steiner

Catherine HOREL

The expulsion of the Germans of Czechoslovakia in 1945-1946 brought an end to the centuries-long presence of German-speaking populations in this part of Central Europe. The German-Czech disagreement regarding these expulsions remained strong throughout the second half of the twentieth century. The suffering endured by Czechoslovaks under Nazi domination, as well as...

The Zentrales Denkmal Flucht und Vertreibung 1945 [Central Memorial for the Flight and Expulsion of 1945], conceived by Joachim Bandau and inaugurated in 1999, Nuremberg.

Léopoldine CHAMBON

Russeries, which were imagined by Jean-Baptiste Le Prince, were one of the last forms of artistic exoticism conceived in eighteenth century France. The artist went to Saint Petersburg in 1757, and was presented at the court of Elizabeth I of Russia (1741-1762), who entrusted him with official commissions. Over the course of six long years, the painter-...

Jean-Baptiste Le Prince, Scène de la vie quotidienne en Russie [Scene from Russian Everyday Life], 1764, oil on canvas, 0.73 x 0.60 m.

Stéphane CASTELLUCCIO

While the discovery of America in 1492 was a cultural and psychological shock for Europe, one that was echoed in Montaigne, the mythical “Cathay” of Asia had always been a part of Western imagination thanks to the Silk Road. The exchange that developed beginning in the seventeenth century established direct contact with this “other,” whose difference was both...

Christophe Huet, Young Chinese men practicing archery, detail from the paneling in the Chinese salon at the Chateau de Champs-sur-Marne, 1748-1749

Yann RODIER

The fluctuating identity of Gypsies was built gradually after their arrival in Western Europe during the fifteenth century. Despite a certain fascination they were considered as professionals of nomadism, theft, vagrancy, and trickery, so much so that an increasingly repressive legislative arsenal was implemented to dislocate their groups. The figure of the fortune-teller...

Frontispiece of the The Art of Knowing Men, by Marin Cureau de La Chambre. The king’s physician, amid his instruments and books, represents the learned practice of physiognomy, which relegates the fortune-teller, in the street wearing a traditional outfit, to a marginal background.

Elisabeth DU RÉAU

The European economic project was the foundation of the first European communities which brought together six states in North-western Europe. The European Customs Union coincided with the period of the Trente Glorieuses and enjoyed continued success until the “energy crisis” of the early 1970s. After the end of the Cold War, the Maastricht Treaty proposed a new...

Signing of the treaty that established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in the Salon de l’Horloge (Quai d’Orsay), with Robert Schuman, the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, holding the treaty. 1951.

Sylvain SCHIRMANN

Reformist and Christian trade unionisms accompanied the construction of the European Community, as opposed to “Marxist” confederations which saw it as an instrument of oppression and war against the socialist camp. The gradual implementation of the European market subsequently raised problems for trade unions, and dialogue with European institutions was affected as...

Demonstration of support for the Greek people, from Athenes to Paris, in all Europe. Source: Flickr

Mathieu DUBOIS

Nineteenth and twentieth century Europe was the continent of political crises par excellence Episodes of European protest (1848, 1918-1919, 1968, 1989) were characterized by their recurrence, continental scope, universalist dimension and profoundly transnational character. While these political crises were never strictly speaking European crises, they...

People atop the Berlin Wall near the Brandenburg Gate on November 9, 1989. The text on the sign, “Achtung! Sie verlassen jetzt West-Berlin”  (Warning! You are now leaving West Berlin), has been modified with an additional text “Wie denn?” (How?).

Marc BELISSA

From Erasmus to Kant, the paradigm of perpetual peace was at the heart of the reflection on the nature of relations between peoples. Irenic thought found expression both in treaties on the law of war and peace and in projects seeking perpetual peace. For their authors, it was not a matter of banning all conflict in a kind of “end of history,” but rather of thinking of...

Title page of Castel de Saint-Pierre, Charles-Irénée (1658-1743), Projet de traité pour rendre la paix perpétuelle entre les souverains chrétiens... éclairci par M. l'abbé de S. Pierre,... (Utrecht: A. Schouten, 1717)

Eric ANCEAU

Despite his promise that the Empire that he restored in the autumn of 1852 would be a peaceful one, and the fact that throughout his reign he sought to promote the principle of major conferences designed to resolve international tensions peacefully, Napoleon III emerged as a troublemaker in the name of the principle of nationality and French interests. He was, for...

Queen Victoria and Napoleon III at the Royal Theatre, Covent Garden, London, April 19, 1855. Source: Royal Collection Trust https://goo.gl/zxSNWz

Olivier DARD

The subject of a European “Black International” of neo-fascist or neo-Nazi inspiration was very popular among journalists during the “Years of Lead” (1970-1980). Although the European radical Right tried after 1945 to establish a neo-fascist International, known as the European Social Movement, the attempt ended in failure. The absence of a structured organization did...

The Venice conference's signatories: Jean Thiriart, Adolf von Thadden, Oswald Mosley, an unknown person, Giovanni Lanfre.

Alessandro CAPONE

The idea of Europe accompanied explicitly or implicitly the development of the myth of medieval Christianity along with its political use by Catholic culture and the magisterium during the nineteenth century. The emphasis on the Catholic Church’s role in the formation of European civilization, which was a common leitmotif, nonetheless served as a foundation for...

Civilization vanquishing barbarism, engraving, Gustave Doré, Paris, 1855

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