Lettre du LabEx EHNE n°8 - été 2018

Lettre du LabEx EHNE

Chères et chers collègues, veuillez trouver ci-après les dernières actualités du LabEx Écrire une Histoire Nouvelle de l'Europe. Bien cordialement, Clémence Blazy pour le LabEx EHNE

Manifestations à venir 
Dernières notices 

Camille MARTIN

Greece experienced a troubled political and social context during the nineteenth century. Seeking to identify an official identity and culture, independent Greece associated itself with European monarchies. Their joint project at the time was to “regenerate” Greece through reference to the classical model, in an effort to definitively break with the century of Ottoman...

Iconostasis and mosaics of the triumphal arch, Saint Sophia’s Cathedral of London, Iconostasis by Ludwig Thiersch and mosaics by Mercenero & Co and Boris Anrep, 1879-1882.

Laurent CUGNY

The recent arrival of jazz (around 1900) was originally connected to a territory (the United States) and a community (African-American). It nevertheless quickly spread throughout the world during cultural migrations that should be examined in order to determine in particular whether Europe was a genuine home for jazz and whether it was adopted without changes, was born...

The James Reese Europe military band playing for the wounded at the temporary auxiliary hospital located at 9 rue des Batignolles in the 17th arrondissement, 1918. @ Bibliothèque du Congrès.

Christine GOUZI

The Revolution of 1789 was a source of political emigration. Among the émigrés were artists—portraitists, former pensioners from the French Academy in Rome, or exiles driven by the Revolution to become artists—who left for Italy, Germany, Austria, England, and Russia. Most thought their exile would be temporary, and did not seek to remain in their host country. They...

Henri-Pierre Danloux, Portrait d’homme [Portrait of a Man], oil on canvas, 76 by 63.5 cm, 1795, Lyon, galerie Descours © Galerie Descours.

Olga MEDVEDKOVA

The idea of the “expansion of French art” was born in the late nineteenth century, in the context of a reaction against the romantic conception of national history. It revived the models of historical thought used by the Modernes during the seventeenth century and Enlightenment philosophers during the eighteenth century. Through the writing of Louis Réau (1881-1961),...

Louis REAU, Histoire de l'expansion de l'art français. Pays scandinaves, Angleterre, Amérique du Nord, Paris, Henri Laurens, 1931.

Jérémie CERMAN

The International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts, which took place in Paris in 1925 and brought together the production of no less than twenty chiefly European nations, had the specific goal of demonstrating the excellence of French know-how. A number of the pavilions built for this occasion featured abundant luxury, with productions seeking to...

Maurice Dufrène, Small Sitting Room, A French embassy pavilion from the Société des artistes décorateurs, The International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts, Paris, 1925. Source : A French Embassy, organized by the Société des artistes décorateurs, Paris, C. Moreau, 1925, pl. X.

Jean-Yves ANDRIEUX

Viollet-le-Duc immediately stood out for posterity through his pragmatic training, original profile, institutional influence, theoretical capacity, and substantial oeuvre, both as a "rationalist" builder (Saint-Denis-de-l'Estrée church) and a restorer (Sainte-Chapelle, Notre-Dame de Paris). He laid the foundations for a science of archeology, which was initiated at...

Château de Pierrefonds (Oise), built between 1396 and 1407 by Louis d'Orléans to control the route between Flanders and Burgundy, and at the request of Emperor Napoléon III restored by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc starting in 1858, who reconstructed the castle art of the late fourteenth century for the exterior, and conceived an imaginative neo-medieval residence for the interior.

Éloïse BRAC DE LA PERRIERE

Since the medieval period, the Persian and Indo-Persian worlds (Iran, Central Asia, India) have from time to time expressed an interest in European art. For instance, in Mongol Iran during the fourteenth century, a number of paintings depicted scenes or more disparate elements taken directly from Christian iconography. This was nevertheless an occasional...

Mughal Empire, Portrait of a European, circa 1600, London, The Victoria and Albert Museum.

Romain FAURE

The international revision of textbooks has sparked great interest in different parts of the world in recent years, and is emblematic of a certain European expertise in cultural rapprochement within postwar contexts. It has its roots in late nineteenth-century pacifism, and gradually became established as a widely used instrument in the continent’s international cultural...

A delegation of Japanese history teachers, members of the Teachers against War association, visiting the Georg-Eckert-Institut in 1998. Source : Archives Georg Eckert Institute.

Thomas CHOPARD

Pogroms, which were emblematic of the persecution of Jews in the Russian Empire up through the early twentieth century, underwent a major transformation during the Great War. This urban popular violence became militarized, and after 1917 formed the core of the most terrible anti-Semitic violence perpetrated before the Holocaust in Ukraine and Belorussia. Supported by...

Bodies in the street after the Kishinev Pogrom (modern-day Moldavia), 1903.

Laure HUMBERT

The figure of the “modern refugee” emerged during the twentieth century. The two world wars, changes to borders, creation of new states, “forced” population exchanges, and wars of decolonization considerably increased the displacements that took place in the nineteenth century. In response, European states and intergovernmental organizations gradually institutionalized...

Frank Meisler’s memorial erected in 2006 in front of Liverpool Street Station in London, in memory of the Kindertransport humanitarian operation that helped transfer 10,000 mostly Jewish children from Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia to Great Britain on the eve of the Second World War.

Pierre-Marie DELPU

The construction of the Italian nation state was one of the primary national movements in Europe during the nineteenth century. Initially driven by patriots opposed to the European order of the Congress of Vienna, it was later harnessed by the Piedmontese monarchy, which in 1848 transformed a community-based project into a territory-based one, with itself at the...

 Gaetano Capone, Viva il Re !, huile sur toile, 1884, Naples, Musée de Capodimonte.

Jean-Paul BLED

While the constitution of nation-states was a key feature of nineteenth-century Europe, a number of multinational empires endured until the aftermath of the First World War, including some of the continent’s greatest powers: the Russian Empire, the Habsburg Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the German Empire. This national pluralism was not managed in the same way in all...

Map of minorities in Austria-Hungary on the eve of the First World War, by Georges Brun.

Lola ZAPPI

Social work developed in Europe during the nineteenth century by offering support to struggling working-class families. It emerged in England and spread through Christian social networks, initially in Western Europe and later in Central Europe. It became professionalized in the 1920s with the appearance of the first social workers (who were mostly female at the time)....

Poster published by the Ministry for Public Health in 1942.

Jean-François DUNYACH

After the failure of universalist models of Christianity and the challenge to Empire by the wars of religion, the various movements referred to as the Enlightenment contributed to a legal, cultural, and civilizational redefinition of Europe. Universal peace, scientific discoveries, circles of scholars and persons of letters, as well as the rise of colonial...

Map of Europe divided into its empires and kingdoms, drawn by M. l’abbé Clouet, of l’Académie royale de Rouen, Paris, 1776.  Source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, Department of maps and plans.

Eric ANCEAU

In 1848, a revolutionary wave shook the conservative order that had presided over the fate of Europe since the fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Rebellions drove out sovereigns or forced them to grant a constitution, and established new regimes founded on national sovereignty and fundamental rights. This was the “People’s Spring.” The European dimension...

Map of the People’s Spring by Bertrand Jolivet

Charlotte CHAULIN

The aim of eugenic ideology is to promote good births. The term was coined by Francis Galton (1822-1911), who proposed a definition in 1883. The desire to improve the human species had not previously been treated as a science, but in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, parts of the medical field converged with regard to the notion of degeneration, and...

Photograph from the 1850s take from Karl Pearson’s The Life, Letters and Labours of Francis Galton.

Flavien BERTRAN DE BALANDA

Among conservative thinkers, the French theorist of the Counter-Revolution, Louis de Bonald (1754-1840), developed an original conception of the history and fate of Europe. He believed that the French Revolution was the starting point for the required regeneration of the continent, as well as for reconstruction around a common project. It would lead in...

Portrait of Louis de Bonald by Julien Léopold Boilly, lithograph series of portraits of Institut de France members.

Flavien BERTRAN DE BALANDA

The theorist of the Counter-Revolution, Joseph de Maistre (1753-1821), developed a reflection on the fate of post-revolutionary Europe. Like his contemporary Louis de Bonald, he caught a glimpse of the continent’s regeneration after the chaos of the Revolution. He believed that the reestablishment of a European balance went hand in hand with the restoration...

Joseph de Maistre by Karl Vogel von Vogelstein, circa 1810, Musée d’art et d’histoire de Chambéry.

Pauline PICCO

The far right was depleted and discredited in the aftermath of the Second World War, and struggled to establish enduring networks of solidarity. It was only beginning with the 1960s that the nationalist struggle was envisioned on a European scale, in order to denounce the “Europe of Yalta” that was relegated behind the American and Soviet powers, as well as the Europe...

Electoral leaflet for the Movimento Sociale Italiano, 1975.

Gilles FERRAGU

The phenomenon of terrorism, which has received great media attention, is of importance in the history of modern Europe, but remains difficult to grasp for it does not adhere to any satisfactory definition. Scattered among different groups dependent on the most varied ideologies, it cannot be reduced to a succession of attacks, demands, and trials. It is therefore...

Assassination attempt in the rue Saint-Nicaise targeting Napoleon Bonaparte on December 24, 1800 (engraving, unknown artist). © BnF.

Nicolas RICHARD, Pierre COUHAULT

After the Reformation, the part of the Church that remained loyal to the pope and Rome continued to consider itself as Catholic, which is to say universal. However, reconfigurations of its geography forced it to examine this universal dimension, for while European Christianity was amputated of almost the entirety of the Germanic, Scandinavian, and...

Guided by Christ and the Virgin Mary, Peter (the pope) holds the rudder of the ship carrying the apostles and saints. The Doctors of the Church propel the ship toward reconquered Constantinople, while the saints of the Counter-Reformation, led by the archangel Michael, defend it against ancient (Arius) and modern (Luther and Calvin) heresiarchs. In the four corners are scenes evoking the expansion of Christianity, the Crusades, and martyrdom. Painted in Mexico, this allegory of the Counter-Reformation Churc

Jean-Baptiste DELZANT

Often associated with biblical heroes and mythical figures from chivalry, the illustrious men of Antiquity sparked the medieval imagination in the West. They were collected in a vast repertory from which examples of moral, political, and military virtues could be drawn. Their perfection was impossible to match, a reflection of how much humanity had declined...

Domenico Ghirlandaio, Hall of Lillies at the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence (1482-1484).

Marion BRÉTÉCHÉ

While during the Middle Ages the censor was the person who read and corrected the work of copyist monks, in the early modern period the term referred to an authority (political, administrative, religious, etc.) exercising the right to control—and where necessary to hinder or ban—the communication of writings to the public. The initiative fell to religious...

“A number of those who practiced magic collected their books and burned them publicly.” The incident in which Saint Paul had books on magic burned (Acts of the Apostles 19:19) served as both a model and frontispiece for the Index of Forbidden Books, published on the orders of pope Benedict XIV in 1758. The Roman Index was the official list of books censored by the Catholic Church. © Private collection.

Marie BOUHAÏK-GIRONES

How to reveal the divine, personify evil, show the invisible, make the supernatural believable, and represent the marvelous? What machines, special effects, and technical secrets are needed? At a time when biblical stories and Christian mysteries, ancient myths and elven legends, were performed on the theater stage, Leonardo da Vinci was not the only inventor...

Sandro Botticelli, Mystical Nativity (1500-1501), National Gallery, London. Source : Wikimedia Commons.

Marion BRÉTÉCHÉ

The salon, along with the academy, masonic lodge, and coffehouse, was one of the centers of high-society and intellectual sociability during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Most often associated with the city of Paris where it was born, it simultaneously evokes the refinement of aristocratic life, frivolity of society entertainments, and depth of...

Anicet Charles Gabriel Lemonnier (1743-1824), Reading of Voltaire’s Tragedy L’orphelin de la Chine in Madame Geoffrin’s Salon, oil on canvas, 129.5 x 196 cm, 1812, Château de Malmaison. © Wikimedia Commons.

Sylvain DUFRAISSE, Sébastien MOREAU, Nicola SBETTI, Philippe VONNARD

Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the European space saw the early development of sport exchange, and played a pioneering role in the international organization of sport. The homogenization of practices and the implementation of continent-wide competitions, a process that...

Clubs competing in the second edition of the European Champions Clubs’ Cup (1956-1957 season). Source :  Official UEFA Newsletter, November 1956 (no. 6), p. 3.

Anne DE FLORIS

Human spaceflight, which was seen during the Cold War as the ultimate field of American-Soviet technological competition, was a field of expertise in Europe that was marked by international cooperation from its very beginnings. Since the inaugural flight of Jean-Loup Chrétien in June 1982, the presence of European astronauts in orbit has always depended on...

The Hermes space plane connected to the independent MTFF-Columbus laboratory, artist’s impression by D. Ducros. Source : Publication CNES, 1985.

Philippe MEYZIE

From the seventeenth to the nineteenth century, European aristocrats shared the same culture of consumption, which prompted them to extend their supply areas. While their domains and nearby merchants still supplied them with a large part of their provisions, they also called on merchants in major commercial centers such as London or Paris, which turned into shopping...

Robert Bénard, La marchande de modes (The Fashion Merchant), 1769, engraving from the Encyclopédie of Diderot and d’Alembert. Source : Wikimedia Commons.

Jean-Christophe MEYER

During the 1950s, the first live televised broadcasts contributed to both the success of international football events and increased sales of television sets. Behind this seemingly simple win-win relation, which made this sport into a European mass media spectacle, lasting tensions emerged between the three major actors involved: football authorities that were...

Uncaptioned drawing by Sempé, France Football special issue, 1958, p. 86. Reproduced with the generous permission of the author.

Pierre VERSCHUEREN

The circulation of knowledge is a major aspect of the physical sciences, which are caught between ambitions of universality and the constraints of both experimentation and written communication. A European space of personal relations, correspondence, publications, and institutions emerged over the long term beginning in the late sixteenth century, reaching its...

Participants in the First Solvay Congress on Quantum Mechanics in 1911.  Photograph taken by Benjamin Couprie for the Institut international de physique Solvay, Leopold Park, Brussels, Belgium, November 2, 1911.

Alice MILOR

The Committee of Common Market Automobile Constructors (CCMC) was created in 1972 by European automobile industry CEOs, who wanted the industry to have a unified voice at the Commission on issues relating to road security and the environment.  The transformation of the CCMC into the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) in 1991 marked the reshaping of...

Photograph of the launch of the European Round Table (ERT) in Paris on April 6-7 1983. At top is Umberto Agnelli from Fiat (7th from left). Below are Bernard Hanon of Renault (2nd from left), Commissioner François-Xavier Ortoli (3rd from left), Pehr G. Gyllenhammar of Volvo (4th from left), and Commissioner Étienne Davignon (5th from left).

Sylvia CHIFFOLEAU

L’Europe du xixe siècle est secouée à plusieurs reprises par des épidémies de choléra. En 1865, ce sont les pèlerins de retour de La Mecque qui diffusent la maladie. Dès lors, l’Europe se mobilise pour stopper la menace épidémique en établissant avec le concours de l’Empire ottoman un vaste dispositif quarantenaire sur la...

Les lazarets destinés aux pèlerins de La Mecque sur la mer Rouge et la ligne de chemin de fer du Hedjaz.

Manuela MARTINI

Largement marquées par la présence féminine dès le xixe siècle, les migrations de travail arrivant, traversant ou quittant le continent européen ont ouvert des possibilités nouvelles aux femmes en migration. Agricultrices avec leurs conjoints, ouvrières dans l’industrie ou employées dans différentes formes de service, elles...

Un examen médical accueillant des immigrants à Ellis Island. Source : National Park Service : Statue of Liberty National Monument.

Thomas CHOPARD

La fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale marque la fin de la présence d’importantes minorités ethniques ou nationales en Europe centrale et orientale. Des déplacements forcés impulsés par les États, en particulier soviétique, parachèvent la refonte des populations, amorcée par les plans nazis pendant la guerre, en vue de consolider les nouvelles frontières européennes. Ces...

Déplacements de populations en Europe. Source : Pearson Prentice Hall.

Nathalie BERNY

Les organisations non gouvernementales (ONG) d’environnement constituent la partie émergée et formalisée des mobilisations environnementales. Apparues dans un rapport de pression ou d’opposition vis-à-vis des décideurs publics, elles sont devenues des acteurs des politiques publiques et, au-delà, de l’action collective en faveur de l’environnement. Le terme d’ONG a...

« No fracking in Europe », Commission européenne, 22 janvier 2014.

Panayota VOLTI

La création artistique médiévale à l’échelle européenne est sous-tendue par la notion et la circulation des modèles. Que ce soit dans le domaine de l’architecture, de la sculpture, de la peinture, de l’orfèvrerie, de la céramique, pour ne citer que quelques-unes des techniques artistiques du Moyen Âge européen, le modèle forme un système complet, quoique succinct, qui...

Modèles de charpente et lanterne sourde, Carnet de Villard de Honnecourt, France, XIIIe siècle, BnF, Fr. 19093, fol. 34. Source : Wikimedia Commons.

Charles-Antoine WANECQ

À partir des années 1970, les urgences médicales deviennent un enjeu politique un peu partout en Europe. Mais la notion d’urgence médicale a une histoire plus ancienne, au croisement de l’histoire des techniques médicales, de la prise en charge des patients et de la perception sociale des risques sanitaires. C’est véritablement au cours du...

Ambulancière anglaise en France, décembre 1914.

Tara CHAPRON

À l’âge du Bronze, l’apparition et la diffusion de la métallurgie du bronze entraînent de nombreux changements techniques et sociaux. Les sociétés se réorganisent et deviennent de plus en plus hiérarchisées. Des circuits commerciaux se mettent en place sur l’ensemble du continent européen et permettent l’essor de la mobilité individuelle ainsi que la circulation de...

Cercueil et costume de « l'homme de Muldbjerg ». Crédit : The National Museum of Denmark.

Elisa MARCOBELLI

Au xixe siècle, la question de la paix et du militarisme n’est pas centrale pour le mouvement socialiste. La Deuxième Internationale (1889) semble dédaigner le sujet et faire du pacifisme un combat de « bourgeois ». La montée des périls qui mène à la Première Guerre mondiale change cependant la donne : à la...

Discours de Jean Jaurès lors d’une manifestation pour la paix à Stuttgart (1907). Source : Wikimedia Commons.

Christian BIREBENT

Genève n’est pas seulement le lieu d’implantation de la Société des Nations. Après la Première Guerre mondiale, un esprit de Genève naît : une volonté de pacifier les relations internationales en promouvant l’organisation internationale comme acteur majeur de la diplomatie. Un milieu constitué de diplomates, d’experts, de militants, de journalistes venus de...

Sortie d’une réunion de la Société des Nations (Genève, 6 septembre 1924). On aperçoit au premier plan les délégués français Louis Loucheur, Aristide Briand et Joseph Paul-Boncour.

Nathalie SZCZECH

Au milieu des années 1530, Jean Calvin fait irruption dans les débats qui divisent alors la scène religieuse européenne et rejoint les rangs de ceux qui tentent de mettre en œuvre la réforme de l’Église. Formé au droit et aux lettres, inconnu de la scène religieuse, il bénéficie à la fois des réflexions de l’humanisme chrétien d’Érasme et de l’héritage des...

Jean PERRISSIN, Intérieur du Temple de Paradis, v. 1565. Musée international de la Réforme de Genève.  La scène représente un des principaux temples de Lyon. La disposition, avec le prédicateur au centre de la pièce, illustre la centralité de la parole de Dieu dans le calvinisme. Conformément à la doctrine du réformateur, le décor ne comporte aucune image – si ce n’est les armes et devises du roi, de la ville et du duc de Nemours, gouverneur du Lyonnais, en signe de fidélité aux autorités.

Liliane HILAIRE-PEREZ

Le xviiie siècle est une période de foisonnement inventif. Les historiens y ont longtemps vu les débuts de la révolution industrielle, suivant un récit déterministe qui faisait une large part aux grandes inventions comme la machine à vapeur. L’invention était réduite au machinisme, aux gains de productivité et à une...

Jacques Vaucanson, Métier à tisser les étoffes façonnées de Vaucanson destiné à remplacer l’ancien métier à la tire (1746). Musée des arts et métiers. Photographie Frédéric Bisson.

Béatrice DE GASQUET

The role of Jewish women and men in European societies has undergone profound changes over the last two centuries. Their gradual equality of rights with non-Jews—in addition to the process of secularization and assimilation, anti-Semitism, and internal reforms of Judaism—had a different impact on women and men, and transformed Jewish representations of femininity...

Festive prayer service at the synagogue of the Jewish Retreat Center in Lehnitz. Lehnitz, circa 1934-1938. Source: Jewish Museum Berlin, gift of Ernest J. Mann, born Ernst Glücksmann. (Note: Contrary to orthodox practice, the sexes are not separated. The Torah scroll is carried by young boys wearing hats, but also by a young girl.)

Linnéa ROLLENHAGEN TILLY

France and Sweden maintained artistic exchanges from the seventeenth century onward, which explains why the collections of French architectural drawings conserved today at the Nationalmuseum in Stockholm are among the largest outside of France. In addition to French drawings, the museum has a large number of sheets from Italy, Sweden, and other locations,...

Claude III Audran, project for a wall decoration or tapestry, pencil, ink, watercolor on paper, circa 1709, 35.7 x 42.6 cm. © Stockholm, Nationalmuseum, NM CC II 79.

Muriel COHEN

Les migrants se logent de manière générale moins bien que la population majoritaire. L’Europe, dans la seconde moitié du xxe siècle, n’échappe pas à la règle. En France, on assiste à une intervention précoce des pouvoirs publics dans les hôtels meublés et bidonvilles algériens qui vise à contrôler le mouvement nationaliste, dans...

Une famille du bidonville de la Folie à Nanterre au début des années 1960. ©  Monique Hervo, La Contemporaine.

Fabrice VIRGILI

Jusqu’au xviiie siècle, le droit de correction de l’homme sur son épouse est légitime. Dans l’Europe du xixe siècle, la domination masculine à la tête de la famille, actée par le Code civil napoléonien, va de pair avec une redéfinition de la virilité, bien que les légalisations...

Ligue populaire antialcoolique, circa 1900. © Bruxelles, Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage.

Yann SCIOLDO-ZÜRCHER

On désigne par le terme alya – « la montée » en hébreu – l’immigration en Israël organisée sur le principe de la « Loi du retour ». Le vocabulaire sioniste nomme olim – « ceux qui montent » – les migrants quittant « la Diaspora » pour s’installer dans l’État hébreu. Trois politiques publiques furent...

Continents d’origine des olim venus s’installer en Israël entre le 15 mai 1948 et le 31 décembre 1962.

Thibault BECHINI

Les mutations urbaines que connaît Marseille entre le milieu du xixe siècle et la seconde moitié du xxe siècle ne peuvent se comprendre sans la prise en compte du phénomène migratoire. Les migrants qui se succèdent dans la cité phocéenne prennent une part active à l’urbanisation des...

Maison construite dans le quartier des Chutes-Lavie à la fin des années 1880 par l’entrepreneur italien de travaux en ciment Victor Ferraris. Photo de l’auteur.

Bibia PAVARD

Feminist movements made posters a preferred form of expression since the nineteenth century in an effort to spread their political messages. Their graphic design, slogans, topics, and production method contributed to shape feminist print cultures, while exhibiting images of women that served as alternatives to dominant representations. Women voting, working, and...

A woman’s work is never done poster, England. Source : See Red Women’s Workshop.

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